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Agric. Economics & Extension

Evaluation of the potentials of Moringa Oleifera leaf extracts as a repellent of Musca domestica (housefly) on fresh mango (Mangifera indica L.) fruit




This study was designed to evaluate the potentials of crude liquid extract and crude powder extract of the leaf of Moringa oleifera as insect (Musca domestica) repellent on fresh mango fruits in Owerri Imo State Nigeria. The experiment was performed in one of the open houses at Imo State University Teaching and Research Demonstration farm of the faculty of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, Imo State University, Owerri between April and May 2016. Moringa oleifera leaf was harvested from a farm around works road Owerri, Imo State. Fresh ripped mango fruits were purchased from Owerri main market (wholesome fruits). Fresh leaves of Moringa oleifera was harvested dried in a room prior to grinding. The experimental design used is Completely Randomized Design (CRD). Data collected were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA) appropriate to Completely Randomized Design (CRD) and mean separation was done using 0.05%  Least Significant Difference (LSD). Findings show that Moringa oleifera leaf extract was able to repel insect (flies) (Musca domestica) on the fruits especially the crude powder extract. It could be concluded that for more effective use of Moringa oleifera leaf extracts as a repellent on fresh mango fruit. The study therefore recommends that that this experiment is tried using higher concentration of the extracts to obtain higher repellency rate of the crude liquid extract and crude powder extract. treatment levels 6ml and 6g,  4ml and 4g respectively be used by fruit sellers to repel Musca domestica (fruit flies) on mango. Mango fruit sellers should use the crude powder extract than the liquid. There is need to carry out detailed laboratory analysis to find out the active ingredients that causes the repellency.  Also that drumstick (Moringa oleifera) leaf extracts should be modified and be used as a repellent of insect (Musca domestica) (flies) on other fruits, because it is healthier than synthetic insecticides which can be poisonous and harmful to man and animals.



Mango (Mangifera indica L.) is an important fruit crop in the family Anacardiaceae, class mangoliospida, the genus mangifera, and species indica (Litz et al., 2009). It is among the most economic and culturally important tropical fruit, especially found in the foothills of the Himalaya in North-eastern India, Burma and Bangladesh and domesticated throughout thousands of years ago possibly suggested to have originated in South-East Asia (De Candolee, 1884). Mango is one of the choicest fruit crops in tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world especially in Asia (Singh et al., 1996). They are the most vital tropical fruit crop after bananas and plantains (FAO, 2011). Mango has numerous uses, for instance; ripe fruits can be made into juice and preserves, while unripe fruits can be processed into pickles and chutney (Samson, 1980). However, in Nigeria most of the fruit produced is consumed as fresh fruit. The fruit pulp which makes up 60-75% of fresh fruit weight contains 15% sugar, high amount of vitamin A and some quantities of vitamin B and C (Samson. 1980). Majority of mango production is consumed fresh and about 1-2% of the products are used in food industries to produce juice, nectar, concentrates, jams, fruit bars and dried fruits (Jedele et al., 2003). Mango processing yields about 40 to 50%  byproducts, which can be used to feed livestock (Sruamsiri and Silman, 2009).  Mango is attacked when ripped by flies both on the tree and when placed for sale.

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Managing the pest of mango when placed for sale to consumers is very necessary in order to improve the aesthetic values and qualities. The use of synthetic insecticides, however result in the development of resistant pest strains, toxicity to man and animals, environmental pollution and are also expensive. It has been estimated by the World Health Organisation (WHO), that about 20,000 people die each year from pesticides poisoning and at least 2 million people suffer acute health effect (Barbara, 1993).

It was reported that fruits treated with insecticides, conventional pesticides at 5ml/L suffered the least damage by the pest but it was slightly toxic as the fruits were seen to show deformity (Oladineji and Kannike, 2009).  Searching for new alternatives to synthetic pesticides is therefore very important. Biopesticides have been shown to be important promising alternatives, compatibility with other pests and diseases management methods (Ahmedani et al., 2009). They are non- phytotoxic, environmentally friendly, non- toxic to man and livestock and also cheap to formulate. The use of aqueous plant extracts with insecticidal properties for insect pest control in crops has been well documented. Botanical powders, oils that show toxicity against many insect pests and diseases include neem, lemon grass, mahogany, chilli pepper, citrus peel, black pepper and bongainvillea, Jatropha curcas, Aframomum melegueta Zing (Ajavi et al., 1987, Echeareobia et al., 2009, Emeribe et al., 2015).

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The flies, (Musca domestica) has many pathogens (viruses, bacteria, fungi, protozoa, and nematodes) including those causing typhoid, cholera, dysentery, tuberculosis, anthrax and parasitic worms, carried to human food on the fly’s body parts or defecations (Sanchez and Capinera, 2008). The extensive use of synthetic insecticides in combating agricultural insect pest (flies) etc has been associated with many constraints which become quite apparent in recent years, particularly in developing countries. These problems include; Insect resistance development coupled with resurgence of treated primary insects, destruction of natural enemies followed by outbreaks of secondary pests, toxicity to many animals, non-target organisms, and environmental contamination etc.

Regrettably, these chemicals are still used in pest control, even though they are no longer officially permitted in most countries. Such undesirable effects warrant the development of strategies that could eliminate the burden of insecticidal control.

One of these strategies is the use of natural insecticides from plant origin to serve as a repellent to flies. Fortunately, most active plant species in the world were thought to be found in tropical countries (Whitehead and Bowers, 1983, Ahmed and Stoll, 1996, Asma et al., 2004). Nigeria is considered one of the richest African countries in floral diversity which needs to be studied for the constituents of their bioactive compounds in the control of pests and diseases (Amal et al., 2012).

However, examples of promising plants that contain phytochemicals used in insect pest control include Neem (Azardirachta indica), Garlic (Allium sativum L.), Basil (Ocimum basilicum L.), Jatropha curcas, Tephrosia vogelli, Xylopia aethiopia, Garcinia kola, Lantana camara and Monodora myristica etc.  Since very few species were studied yet, extensive research works are needed to discover such rich sources for proper utilization. Besides, higher plants produce both primary and secondary chemical metabolites. Secondary metabolites are known to play important roles in plant survival as defense mechanisms against adverse biotic and abiotic conditions.

One of such plants that possess insecticidal properties is Moringa oleifera. The plant is readily available in most rural communities of South East zone in Nigeria and other West African countries. The plant is under- utilized, neglected but can be improved.

Studies on the effect of Moringa oleifera leaf extracts as a repellent of insect (Musca domestica) on fresh mango fruit is limited in Nigeria. Some reports on Moringa oleifera in Nigeria is centred on its use as an edible plant and has numerous industrial, medicinal and agricultural uses (Bosch, 2004; FAO, 2014).

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The swarm of insects like houseflies, bees, drosofila and lice are challenges to fruit sellers within our sub humid region. These fruit sellers keep their products on water proof spread on the ground in an open space waiting for buyers to buy them. The consumers have no choice as they need these fruits for their daily diet. Though the benefits of fruits are so numerous but these unsuspecting consumers have no choice than to buy them and go home, wash them with salt and water before they consume them. Some will even start to eat them without washing. The stains on the fruits are causes of several ailments leading to cholera, dysentery and other stomach problems (Sanchez and Capinera, 2008; Graczyk et al., 2001). These added reasons necessitated the need for this research which involves the need for a cost effective bio-pesticides, that are cheap, economical, easy to formulate and environmental friendly. Most of these plants that show potency or repellent actions are commonly seen in our environments, though some are developed while some are not. Little or no work has so far been done to repel houseflies on mango fruits using Moringa oleifera. Hence, this research work is specially focused to close the gap within our local environment.

Objectives of the study

The present study therefore is aimed at evaluating the potentials of Moringa oleifera leaf extracts as a repellent of Musca domestica (housefly) on fresh mango (Mangifera indica L.) fruit.

The specific objectives of the study include:

  1. Evaluate the effect of Moringa oleifera leaf extracts as a repellent of insects (Musca domestica) on fresh ripped mango fruits.
  2. Investigate the effect of Moringa oleifera leaf extracts on physical appearance and texture of ripped mango fruits.
  3. Ascertain the more effective concentration level of Moringa oleifera leaf extracts (liquid/powder) on ripped mango fruits.
  4. Identify the type of Musca domestica (housefly) and other pests that were predominant on fresh ripped mango fruits.

    Pages:  40

    Category: Project

    Format:  Word & PDF         

    Chapters: 1-5                                 

    Material contains Table of Content, Abstract and References.


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