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Design And Construction Of 2.5kva Solar Supported Pure Sine Wave Inverter With Charge Controller




The project describes the design and construction of a 2.5KVA Pulse Width Modulated (PWM) Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor (MOSFET)-based inverter, which works on the principle of PWM. The inverter uses IC SG3524 and a pair of Twelve MOSFETs to drive the load. The design and implementation starts with the power supply. Component selection was made with the aid of electronics data book, which made the design and calculations very easy. One main feature of this inverter is the monitoring section, and the battery-charging section connected to the inverter circuit. The inverter converts DC supply of the battery into AC power supply required by most electrical appliances/equipment when the AC main is not available; and when the AC main is available, the supply goes to the AC main sensor, the relays and battery charging section of the inverter. This inverter can be used for domestic purpose, and it is not recommended for industrial purpose where high current is required for application, such as starting a heavy motor.



1.1 Backgdround of the Studies

Nigeria is Africa’s energy giant. It is the continent’s most prolific oil-producing country, which, along with Libya, accounts for two-thirds of Africa’s crude oil reserves. It ranks second to Algeria in natural gas. Most of Africa’s bitumen and lignite reserves are found in Nigeria. In its mix of conventional energy reserves, Nigeria is simply unmatched by any other country on the African continent. It is not surprising therefore that energy export is the mainstay of the Nigerian economy. Also, primary energy resources dominate the nation’s industrial raw material endowment [1].

Several energy resources are available in Nigeria in abundant proportions. The country possesses the world’s sixth largest reserve of crude oil. Nigeria has an estimated oil reserve of 36.2 billion barrels. It is increasingly an important gas province with proven reserves of nearly 5,000 billion m3. The oil and gas reserves are mainly found and located along the Niger Delta, Gulf of Guinea, and Bight of Bonny. Most of the exploration activities are focused in deep and ultra-deep offshore areas with planned activities in the Chad basin, in the northeast. Coal and lignite reserves are estimated to be 2.7 billion tons, while tar sand reserves represent 31 billion barrels of oil equivalent. The identified hydroelectricity sites have an estimated capacity of about 14,250 MW. Nigeria has significant biomass resources to meet both traditional and modern energy uses, including electricity generation. Table1 shows Nigeria’s energy reserves/potentials. There has been a supply and demand gap as a result of the inadequate development and inefficient management of the energy sector. The supply of electricity, the country’s most used energy resource, has been erratic [2].

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The situation in the rural areas of the country is that most end users depend on fuel wood. Fuel wood is used by over 70% of Nigerians living in the rural areas. Nigeria consumes over 50 million tonnes of fuel wood annually, a rate which exceeds the replenishment rate through various afforestation programs. Sourcing fuel wood for domestic and commercial uses is a major cause of desertification in the arid-zone states and erosion in the southern part of the country. The rate of deforestation is about 350,000 ha/year, which is equivalent to 3.6% of the present area of forests and woodlands, whereas reforestation is only at about 10% of the deforestation rate [3].

Table 1.1 Nigeria energy reserves/capacity as in December 2005 [3]

Resource type Reserves Reserves (BTOE)c Reserves (× 107) TJ
Crude oil 36.2 billion barrels 4.896 20.499
Natural gas 166 trillion SCFa 4.465 18.694
Coal and lignite 2.7 billion tones 1.882 7.879
Tar sands 31 billion barrels of oil equivalent 4.216 17.652
Subtotal Fossil   15.459 64.724
Hydropower, large Scale 11,000 MW   0.0341/year
Hydropower, small Scale 3,250 MW   0.0101/year
Fuel wood 13,071,464 hab    
Animal waste 61 million tonnes/year    
Crop residue 83 million tonnes/year    
Solar radiation 3.5 to 7.0 kW h/m2/day    
Wind 2 to 4m/s (annual average) at 10 m in height    


The rural areas, which are generally inaccessible due to the absence of good road networks, have little access to conventional energy such as electricity and petroleum products. Petroleum products such as kerosene and gasoline are purchased in the rural areas at prices 150% in excess of their official pump prices. The daily needs of the rural populace for heat energy are therefore met almost entirely from fuel wood. The sale of fuel wood and charcoal is mostly uncontrolled in the unorganized private sector. The sale of kerosene, electricity and cooking gas is essentially influenced and controlled by the Federal Government or its agencies – the Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation (NNPC) in the case of kerosene and cooking gas, and the PHCN in the case of electricity. The policy of the Federal Government had been to subsidize the pricing of locally consumed petroleum products, including electricity. In a bid to make the petroleum downstream sector more efficient and in an attempt to stem petroleum product consumption as a policy focus, the government has reduced and removed subsidies on various energy resources in Nigeria. The various policy options have always engendered price increases of the products.

With the restructuring of the power sector and the imminent privatization of the electricity industry, it is obvious that for logistic and economic reasons especially in the privatized power sector, rural areas that are remote from the grid and/or have low consumption or low power purchase potential will not be attractive to private power investors. Such areas may remain unserved into the distant future.

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Meanwhile, electricity is required for such basic developmental services as pipe borne water, health care, telecommunications, and quality education. The poverty eradication and Universal Basic Education programs require energy for success. The absence of reliable energy supply has not only left the rural populace socially backward, but has also left their economic potentials untapped. Fortunately, Nigeria is blessed with abundant renewable energy resources such as solar, wind, biomass, and small hydropower potentials. The logical solution is increased penetration of renewables into the energy supply mix [3][4].

Solar energy which is one of the best renewable sources of energy is easy to obtain, harness and maintain with the installation of solar inverter will help to solve most of the energy crisis in some sectors of the nation

1.2 Statement of the Problem

The ever increasing demand of energy supply in Nigeria has been a great challenge to her development. This situation is becoming critical with increasing population not balanced by adequate energy supply and energy development program. This power failure has grossly affected the economy, seriously slowing down development in rural and sub-rural settlements. Yet on the flip side of the crisis are enormous opportunities for Nigeria. As the population increases so do the electric power consumption. For Nigeria to meet up with her energy needs, it must diversify and look for alternative sources. The electricity generation should diversify to include significant share of different sources such as diesel, coal, biomass, wind, and solar[5][6].

Solar power system can become a viable solution to Nigeria’s electricity crisis. Nigeria has some of the world’s most abundant and least exploited renewable energy sources especially solar power. Solar energy technology can be sized to fit the energy needs anywhere in this country. This can serve for power supply from light to business processes, households, schools, hospitals, ministries to an entire village.

The incessant power generation failure has not only reduce productivity in industries and offices but has also reduce the number of national and international companies relying on electric energy for their operation.

The cost of alternate power supply from petrol and diesel generators used by producing companies is always added to their product thereby increasing the cost of goods and services in the society.

The alternate source of energy from our petrol and diesel generators are not only costly to run and maintain but also contribute to pollution of the environment because of the emission of carbon(iv)oxide during their operation.

Lack of power supply has also resulted in food wastage since electrical energy is mostly required to preserve perishable goods, therefore reducing food availability in the society.

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1.3 Aim and Objectives

The main aim of this project is to design and implement 2.5KVA pure sine wave inverter system with charge controller device that can collect an input DC voltage from the solar panel and convert it to 220V AC output which can be use to power AC appliances.

The specific objectives of this project are:

  • Take survey the total wattage consumption of a standard three bedroom flat.
  • To use the result obtained from the survey to estimate the required size of a solar panel and hence the number of panels needed, the size and the number of battery and the required KVA of the inverter to be made. In this work, 2.5KVA pure sine wave inverter.
  • To design a 2.5KVA pure sine wave inverter system using proteus simulator.
  • To simulate the design system with the simulator.
  • To purchase all the components needed to build the project.
  • To assemble the components on a project frame which could either be Printed Circuit Board or the project casing.
  • To test the inverter if it is properly constructed as designed.
  • To mount the solar panel at the appropriate part of the roof for optimum solar intensity.
  • To complete the connection of the system in the building.
  • To test the system for at least two days before conclusion.

1.4  Significance of the Study

This project bridges the gap created by power failure in our society and country Nigeria, i.e. being an alternative source of power to balance the great demand of energy by the country’s ever increasing population.

The availability of renewable energy such as solar energy will reduce the energy crisis in our various institutions such. In school it facilitates activities such as research, in hospitals it facilitate medical operation, in ministries it motivate works etc.

More also it increases productivity and the number of both national and international companies in the country.

This abundance of energy increases production at a reduce cost and therefore reduces the cost of products in the society.

It provides a clean source of power without air and noise pollution.

It also provides a great support to food preservation in the agro-sector, thereby reducing food wastage in the society.

  • Scope of the Project

This project focuses on the design and construction of 2.5kva pure sine wave inverter system with charge controller that convert battery’s Direct Current (DC) into Pure Sine wave Alternating Current (AC) to feed home Appliances, with solar modules such as solar panels, charge controllers, inverters and rechargeable batteries, etc.

Pages:  103

Category: Project

Format:  Word & PDF        

Chapters: 1-5

Material contains Table of Content, Abstract and References.

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