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Border Security And Ogun State Economy, 1976-2015

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ABSTRACT

This study dwells mainly on the land and people of Ogun State of Nigeria, attempts to examine the extent and depth of the cultural affinity of the people of this state with their cross-border neighbours in the Republic of Benin, and the influence on the Ogun State culture of trans-border socio-economic activities. Against the backdrop of Nigeria’s post-colonial efforts at improved and healthy border relations, the study also examines the security implications of the border relations for Nigeria generally, and for Ogun State, in particular, especially in the face of illegal movement of people and goods into the state. With data extensively obtained from primary and secondary source materials on the subject, and using the quantitative and qualitative historical methodology, the study reveals that there are numerous effects and dynamics of challenges associated with the nexus between the Nigeria-Benin Republic border security and Ogun State economy. While it is true that the impact of the border relations has been noticeable in the area of primary production, manufacturing, construction and commercial activities, to mention just these, there have been quite a number of perceived challenges, especially in the area of culture and security. This study dwells on aspects of such impact as well as the challenges which have impaired the continuous progress of what one may term “the border economy” of Ogun State, and it concludes by proffering recommendations on how to address the challenges.   

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Background to the Study

Ogun State is located in the south-western part of Nigeria.  The state is bounded on the west by the Republic of Benin and on the east by Ondo State, to the north of the state are Oyo and Osun States while Lagos State and Atlantic ocean are to the south. According to Federal office of Statistics (1996), the State covers about 16,762 square kilometres, that is approximately 1.82 percent of Nigerian land mass.

The locational setting of the state shows that it can be described as a developing region situated among the developed states in Nigeria. As a matter of fact, the state occupies a mid-way position with regard to socio-economic development in the country. Its linkage with the neighbouring international community and much more developed states in Nigeria enhances its trade links and offers tremendous opportunities for growth and development of the state. By virtue of its location, the state has been able to attract and retain both foreign nationals and other Nigerian ethnic groups who find the different centres (particularly urban areas) of the state conducive to investment opportunities. Given the natural endowments and the locational advantages of the state vis-à-vis its local and international neighbours, has made the state without doubt to rank high in terms of conduciveness to live as well as business investment opportunities.

This study is on economics of borderlands with emphasis on Nigeria-Benin economic relations across the borderlands of Benin and Yoruba (Nigeria), with a focus on the effects these trans-border economic relations had on the Ogun state economy. An assessment of the losses and gains which Nigeria has derived over the years in these cross-border economic relations may indeed be time-consuming. It is in this light that one could appraise the overall effects of border security on Nigeria economy using  Ogun State as a case. Nigeria’s borders, with few or no exemption are porous. This implies the poorly mounted security potentials which render them fluid without any serious restriction on illegal migration. In the present situation, Ogun State appears to be more confused, particularly about seeking workable solution to the smuggling of goods into Yewa border communities.

This near hopeless security situation should be expected because the psychology of smuggling is rooted in the European political surgery of Africa’s land space. This demarcation of Africa’s space into sovereign entities dates back to the West African Berlin Conference (1884-1885) which split African groups (homogenous and heterogeneous) into colonies that later became independent states. Those ethnic groups divided by European political interests in West Africa always had their ways of interacting. For instance, the Aja of the present Benin Republic was a component of the Oyo Kingdom before the recreation of Africa by the colonialists. In present Benin Republic, the Yoruba language is wide spoken among the people. It is noteworthy that even at independence of each country, the peoples continued to interact, defiling the security restrictions of their states. Where the security was severed, they developed bush paths, moved contraband goods through the sea or swampy forests.1  Since the people had a better understanding of the land, and giving the porous nature of Africa’s borders, they had to go on with their trade relations with minimal restrictions. It is against this cultural factor responsible for clandestine economic relations between the Yoruba of Benin and their Nigerian counterparts that Asiwaju has noted among other things that,

‘…to the attitude in particular African culture area or ethnic groups which were more immediately affected by the political surgery by being split into two or more colonies and, later, independent African successor states…the Somali whose essentially continuous culture area was severed into the separate colonies of British Somaliland, French Somaliland, Italian Somaliland, the Northern frontier district of Kenya and the Ogadeen province of imperial Ethiopia: the Maasai, cut nearly in half by the Kenya-Tanzania border: the Bakongo across the Gabon-Congo, Congo-Zaire and Zaire-Angola boundaries: the Lunda astride the Zaire-Angola and Zaire-Zambia frontier; the Zande or the Azande cut by boundaries into different parts in the Sudan, Chad, the Central African Republic and Zaire; the Yoruba and the Aja, each divided between Nigeria, Benin (formerly Dahomey) and Togo; the Gourma truncated into parts…2

The above comment disproved the terrible division of African homogenous peoples into the polities created by colonialists. This land division necessitated a new phase of economic relations. The various cities and markets in Ogun State have been directly and indirectly affected by these trans-border economic interactions. As much can be said of the major cities of Ogun, the lives of Ogun people (including non-indigenes) have equally been touched by cross-border business operating along Ogun borders with Benin Republic in Yewaland. This cooperation can be said to have promoted the growth of indigenous industries in some ways and on the contrary, diminished local technology. These economic relations had raised notable merchants in the various cities of the state between 1976 and 2015. There are some other business ventures that have liquidated and had gone bankrupt as a result of not being able to withstand the quality of foreign exotic commodities. Trans-border cooperation between the people of Ogun State and merchants of Cotonou had raised series of economic issues that would be addressed in this study.

The bulk of issues raised in the foregoing and unrestricted mobility of people into Ogun State that affect the available industries operating in the land are the tasks before this study on Border Security and Ogun State Economy, 1976-2015. They propelled the desire to go into this work and would serve as assessment parameter on the overall achievement at the end.

Statement of the Problem

Nigeria is a state blessed with abundant resources and strategically located, yet the state is backward economically. According to Asobele3, people still believe that the colonialists entirely caused the economic underdevelopment of the state. It is true that this factor contributed enormously to the economic underdevelopment of the peoples of Nigeria, but, how can one account for those arising from poor security of Nigerian borderlands.  The degree of corruption among security personnel operating in border communities, incessant cross-border illicit movement of goods, unrestricted illegitimate development of bush paths are indeed challenges facing proper security operations in border communities in Ogun State of Nigeria. Unfortunately, scholars have not investigated these economic dares to the extent that could prompt economic growth. It is the quest to uncover this underperformance and its effect on Ogun State that the study was deemed imperative.

Again, Ogun State, within the study period witnessed serious decline in the purchase of locally made goods and its consequent winding up of many indigenous industries in the land.  In order to unravel the causal factors to these perceived challenges as a guide to policy makers in the state towards improving local production and avoiding the re-currence of this negative development this study again, was timely and inescapable.

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Purpose of the Study

The purpose of this study is an evaluation of the nexus between border security and the economy of Ogun State between 1976 and 2015. More specifically the research is aimed to:

  1. trace the historical background of Ogun people and Yewa borderlands;
  2. appraise factors facilitating trans-border economic relations of the people across Yewa borderlands;
  • examine the security situation along the borderlands and within border communities of Ogun State;
  1. identify the economic centres and cities of Ogun state and examine the extent to which Yewa borderlands have opened up economic opportunities in the state; and
  2. assess the degree to which these borderlands have affected Ogun State economy within the time frame.

Significance of the Study

This study is of great importance given the fact that it would offer political, strategic and economic benefits to succeeding generations of Africa. The following constitute the possible benefits.

  1. It will equip our knowledge about the early history of the Yewa border towns of Ogun State.
  2. This research provides some information to Nigerian security personnel operating along the borderlands of Ogun State.
  • It reveals the security lapses that normally caused the porosity of the borders.
  1. The research offers policy advice to Nigerian government on how these lapses could be corrected.
  2. The study reveals those economic opportunities in Ogun State and the major cities where these abound that were facilitated by the Ogun State border communities.
  3. It serves as a compendium for further studies and reference.

Scope of the Study

The study focuses on the nexus between Border Security and Ogun State Economy, 1976-2015. The choice of 1976 was informed by the creation of Ogun State. It was from this year that the administration of Idiroko border through Nigerian’s security effort was complemented by internal arrangements within Ogun State for optimum security. The choice of 2015 was prompted by the end of President Goodluck Jonathan’s administration. Every administration has its leadership style. The degree of attention that border security received during this time becomes a concern and the extent to which this meant well for the state remains a focus of this study. Within this time frame, an array of events regarding politics and strategy as well as the economy of Ogun State is enclosed.

Methodology and Sources of Information

The nature of this study has made it imperative that one research technique would not be clearly appropriate. First, quantitative and qualitative research techniques will be suitable. The availability of data is of great value to a research on economic activities. The numerous tables containing data on trans-border economic activities present needed quantitative evidence which might likely enrich our understanding of the effect of poor security on the economy of Ogun State. On this note, figures describing the volume of trade that had taken place across Nigeria-Benin borders and such cities as Abeokuta, Ijebu-ode, Shagamu, Ilaro and Sango Otta that encompass Ogun State were of utmost benefit. These figures are analyzed systematically to address the issues raised in the research. The objective interpretation of these figures offers qualitative evidence.

On data collection, historical research method was adopted. Historical research is designed to reconstruct the past systematically and objectively through diligent collection and interpretation- in an attempt to establish facts and conclusion that are capable of equipping our knowledge and understanding.4 Primary and secondary sources of information are employed in the study. Such primary sources of important information in this study were acquired from the elders of the land, survey or observation by the researcher.

In this study such secondary material as books and journal were acquired from university libraries, inter-personal borrowing and personal library. Information derived were interpreted objectively and utilized to the effectiveness of this study.

Conceptual Clarification

The study had localised the main ideas in Border, Security and Economic Development into the context of this research. Against this backdrop, the following concepts require clarification:

  1. Border

In geography, border has variously been defined. A.I Adalemo sees border as “the limit beyond which a phenomenon is no longer dominant or existent.5 To T.W Freeman, regional geography is concerned with putting lines that do not exist around areas that do not matter.6 Though, the regional concept goes beyond lines making. It includes the effects of these lines on human society. To Williams Bunge, regions “are merely the areal aspects of a classification problem common to science’.7  Operationally, barrier, border, boundary and frontiers are terms which have been used interchangeably to describe limit. However, border has an outward orientation referring to the barrier or demarcation that separates two sovereign entities or states.

  1. Boundaries

          Boundaries can be concrete or abstract. By being concrete it means that they mark the end of regions. The region implies an area within a state or country properly demarcated to avoid encroachment by another region.8 The idea of boundary in this case, connotes the lines that separate communities, component units of a state and ethnic groups. However, boundary does not imply the separating lines on ground between two sovereign entities.

Besides being concrete, boundary can be regarded as that which has abstract quality. They determine the differences between individuals or groups that have varying backgrounds. For instance, there are academic, cultural, religious and economic boundaries that structure different classes of people in the society.9  Both the concrete and abstract qualities of boundaries are pointers to the fact that they are not seen but are bearing on human society.

  1. Security

Reflecting on the background of this study, security is very paramount at the border and also first assignment of any government as nothing could be done under insecurity of lives and property. If the borders are insecure, the social and economic development of such country will be a herculean task. Hence, poverty, diseases, hunger and fear will dominate the society. For instance, the increasing number of transnational crimes as well as the prevalent terrorist group that pervaded Nigeria disturbed the economic efforts of the country. The custom department will have to examine the conveyances of goods and services, the immigration will look into the movement of people while the armed forces are to defend the territorial integrity of the country. According to Johas peter, “security rises and falls with the ability of a nation to deter an attack or defeat”.10  Berkowitz and Bock see it as the ability of a nation to protect its internal values from external threats.11 Ayoob reiterates, “that which threatens or have the potential to bring down or weaken state structures, both territorial and institutional or governing regimes should be avoided.12 It can be deduced from these definitions or conceptualizations that security is state centric which concerns itself mainly on military capability to deter external aggression and also favours the traditional meaning of security which is beyond the meaning in this study.

  1. Borderlands

The lands that comprise communities who live near borders are borderlands. According to Touval, the landmass that extends about 2502 m away from the border  may be regarded as borderlands.13  Yewa communities are good examples of this. They do cover up to this landmass from Idiroko border. It is on borderlands that border communities settle.

  1. Border Communities

The aggregate number of people inhabiting each borderland is referred to as a border community. It is also known as border people, border town among other terms that are indicators to people occupying the land near border. Gieryn opined that any study conducted on borderlands is a perfect one, according to him, because it is holistic and that no vital community of the borderland is isolated.14 Therefore, border communities is an amalgam of peoples within the borderlands.

  1. Buffer Zone/ No-man’s-land

This is an area agreed between neighbouring states or countries to which no claim could be made by the parties involved. Malcolm Anderson  asserted that buffer zones are sacrosanct and should remain inviolable to avoid future claim that may lead to conflict.15  This landmass is revered and known by the neighbouring states.

  1. Yewa

This composes of the borderlands and the communities with distinct characteristics that distinguish them from other Yoruba groups. These lands consisted of components of Egbado before the renaming. One outstanding characteristic of the westerly group is that each and every one of them is a divided community: each has a substantial and active part located on the other side of the border. The border communities that formed Yewa include the: Ogu16  found in Soki Ere, Agboku, Obakobe, Ikonga-Ile, Tongeji, Whekan, Maun, Tube , Akere, Ohori, Ketu and Oueme province of Benin Republic. In Lagos they are found in Badagry, Ajido, Ajara, Ikoga-Zebe, Iragan and Irekiti.

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Next, are the Anago  in Ipokia, Ijofin, Agosasa, Ibatefi, Idiroko, Ihumbo; the Ifoyin in Ifonyintedo and Ilase: the Ije(called Ohori and Holli by other Yoruba and Aja respectively) in Ojo-odan, Obele, Ohumbe, Ibeku and Isale; the Ketu in Egua, Iranjin, Igan-Alade, Ijoun, Ijale, Imoto, Eeja, Owode-Ketu, Tata, Ilara, Idofa and Imeko. The northernmost section of the border- located western Yoruba sub-group now called ‘Egbado’ are the Sabe in Okuta, Iwoye, and Jabata with spill-over communities in the adjacent and geographically contiguous Kajola( Oke-Iho) and Ifedapo(Saki) LGA’s in Oyo State.17

As mentioned earlier, each of these ethnic and sub-ethnic groups has their Kith and Kin inside the Republic of Benin; all the settlements on the Nigerian side have their Beninese twin-sister communities. The Beninese sister towns or villages constitute the ‘parent’ centres for the settlements on the Nigerian side of the border.

Theoretical Framework

Economic consideration has served as pull and push factors in the relationship between nations, large and small. Man and nations have been forced to engage in varying relations with the world outside them is a reality. Economic determinist ideology has been properly represented by Karl Marx, although there were non-socialist, even liberal versions of this position. Karl Marx in his materialist interpretation of history reveal the class relationship between the ‘Haves’ and the ‘Have-nots’.18  In this relationship, the Haves are the rich nations of the world whose relationship with their weaker fellows have been for exploitation and to sustain the perpetual position of the influential state. However, the weaker states are always struggling to come out of their weakness. This explains why ‘economically backward’ nations are tied on the apron string of the superior ones. In like manner, in a capitalist economy there has been the class struggle between aristocratic (wealthy) class and the working-class. In such relationship, the lower-class is often ill-used for the selfish end of the upper-class. This could lure the oppressed class to such inglorious dealings as cross-border smuggling of contraband items to reach the influential aristocratic height of the society.

Marx is the first to suggest that there are systemic connections between economic organization, technological development and the political map. In the Marxian theory19  of scientific socialism the role of rulers and governments under capitalism was relegated to that of agents of the bourgeoisie, itself the product of the underlying economic organization of society. The factory system resulted in the accumulation of capital in fewer and fewer hands and a drive for access to larger markets. Marx regarded the large nation-state as the political form best suited to capitalism because such states supplied homogeneous markets which could be dominated by bourgeois rulers; but the bourgeois class would, in his view, become increasingly competitive as successive crises of over-production caused a more and more intense struggle for markets. Extending state territory was one aspect of the life-and-death struggle to capture markets; a theory used by Lenin to explain the imperialism of the European powers in the late nineteen century to colonize what remained of the less developed regions of the world. In the same direction explains why illegitimate cross-border dealings has been the option of the explo  `ited population in a market dominated by the wealthy traders.

When the last remaining markets have been cornered, according to Lenin, the stage would set for the struggle which would bring about the collapse of capitalism. Lenin prophetic vision turned out to be incorrect, although latter-day Marxists have argued that United States, in association with other core capitalist states in Europe and Japan, has assumed the mantle of the nineteenth century European colonial powers, with the less developed countries in a dependent relationship with them. This view derives from Lenin’s famous tract on imperialism;

… finance and its foreign policy…give rise to a number of transitional forms of state’s dependence. Not only… the two main groups of  countries, those owning colonies or the colonies themselves, but also the diverse forms of dependent countries which politically, are formerly independent, but in fact, are enmeshed in the net of financial and diplomatic dependence…20

The stage is therefore still set, according to ‘dependency’ theorists, for the final crisis of capitalism.

Marx crisis is gaining ground gradually in the nature of cross-border relationship of individuals who feel that they are not properly integrated in their state’s (Nigeria) political economy, therefore engaged themselves in illicit movement of goods across their states’ frontiers as a means of coping with the inherent competition engendered by capitalism. This situation, however, is a crack on state system. This study adopts the economic determinist idea in proffering explanation to why Yewa borderands security has influenced economic activities in Ogun State, particularly between 1976 and 2015.

Literature Review

Reviewing works of other scholars in a similar subject of discussion has been a common routine among researchers. It is against this background that one examines what other people have written on borders and security as well as the extent to which existing literature could benefit the present study. In his idea, F.N. Ikome quoting Oommen, asserted that the rise and fall, the construction and deconstruction of various types of boundaries is the very story of human civilization.21  However, it should be noted that the importance of boundaries are also found in a given human civilization. This was neglected in his study. This study, therefore, stands to show the relevance of boundaries in a given human civilization by looking at its contributions in promoting inter-state economic relations.

Anthony Asiwaju identified classes of socio-political border; in his words:

an antecedent boundary is one whose establishment preceded the close settlement and development of the region they encompass…A subsequent boundary is one drawn or established after a population or groups of population have been well-settled in an area with basic map of their social and economic differences well formed…superimposed boundaries are also those established after an area has been closely settled.22

However, his study failed to acknowledge the fact that there are activities carried out on these boundaries which impact positively on a given population. Evidence of this has been laid in this study looking at border security and the economy of Ogun State.

Malcolm Anderson once opined that,

Some historians and political scientists regard the characteristics and functions of frontiers as dependent on the internal organization of societies, and the way in which political power is exercised in the core regions of states; frontiers are regarded as epiphenomena whose roles and functions are dependent on the core characteristics of the states. For other (including most political geographers), the characteristics of the frontiers are fundamental influence on the way a society develops and on the political options open to it. 23

However, it should be noted that the characteristics of frontiers are also fundamental on the way a society retrogresses in development. This was neglected in his study. This study therefore proves this assertion by looking at how border security porosity has negatively affected the economy of Ogun State.

Julian Minghi, in her work, attempted to show ground for “bordering or de-bordering”. Her contrivance deserves special attention. To her, the study of border is not something new; it has a fertile past considering that during the past few decades it has evolved into an inter-disciplinary field, the future is also appealing. While geography was the first discipline to study borders and boundaries, soon others followed and today borders are widely studied by psychologists, lawyers, anthropologists, economists, ethnologists and more. Geography played, and continues to play, a leading role in border studies. She noted further, “boundaries are perhaps the most palpable political geographic phenomena”.24

This idea is in line with the task of drawing new borders as a result from war, as the famous title of the book by M. Lacoste says: La geographic, csa sert d’abort a’ faire la guerre,25 and still geographers are the experts in questions of boundary delimitation. Ironically, because of the ‘borderless’ world propaganda border studies have undergone a renaissance during the past decade. More and more conferences on border issues are organized and also the amount of institutions dealing with (cross) border issues has increased. The scope of study has expanded and new approaches are invented, no longer is the border considered as a line alone, but increasingly the border has become known as a process. The important question is not where a border is, but how a boundary is and what the practices of the boundary are. Within this multi-disciplinary orientation, Minghi and Lacoste showed the legitimate grounds for accepting or rejecting the borders made by the Europeans which affects this study on border security and Ogun State Economy. Though, their works were not centered on Nigeria-Benin international boundaries.

  1. Toal, writing on border security management noted that, it is not so much about the border, but about the ordering.26 According to him, border in this case points to the noticed barriers within individuals and governments separated by political ideology and spatial restrictions. Though, Toal and his contemporaries failed to identify the implications of these types of border on human interactions. For instance, their effect on national economy.
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Faucault Derrida, identified that most recent approach in border studies is the so called policy-practice-perception approach. This approach considers borders and boundaries as products of social practice and integrates analysis at different activities and what kind of business and people are involved. It also considers the policy, the strategy of states and the actions of local and regional governments.27 This approach is very significant to a discourse on Border security and Ogun State Economy, considering government policy and actions toward addressing the clandestine business of borderland peoples in Ogun state. It should be said also, that this perception of the border deserves consideration. This is more post-modern tradition of scholars such as Foucault, Derrida and others where questions of identity, belonging and identification are important. Besides this approach, there are many more, depending on whether the scholar is coming from political, economic, cultural or regional geography. Of course one has to be reminded that there are no clear distinct categories, a lot of work is often more fluid and cross disciplinary. Though, they approach border issues as they affect world regions without showing economic implication of trans-border interactions on Ogun state economy.

  1. Anderson, presenting the claim of Raffestin noted that in traditional geography, there was for a long time the distinction between good and bad boundaries. Good boundaries were the natural ones, formed by mountains or rivers, while bad ones were artificially constructed.28 To him, natural borders are easily protected because they are original to people living in such areas where they are found. Security management of natural borders could be easier than artificially created borders of Nigeria-Benin that had not been fully accepted by Africans whose consents were not sought prior to land partitioning. Though, Anderson concentrated on natural borders and paid no attention to economic effects of artificial ones.

Anthony Asiwaju commented on the method of this partitioning and the effect it produced. He therefore submits:

From the view point of Western powers concerned and the associated world of Eurocentric scholars and men of affairs, the centenary of the partition of Africa took place in November 1884… it will be recalled that the Berlin conference, despite its significance for the subsequent history of Africa, was essentially a European affair: there was no African representation, and African concern were, if they mattered at all, completely marginal to the basic economic, strategic and political interests of the negotiating European power29

The partitioned Yoruba have been interacting across both Nigeria and Benin international boundaries, especially, through smuggling of contraband goods. Though, Asiwaju failed to identify the obvious implication of this relationship on the economic growth of nations concerned, his work discussed the cultural implication of this interations. The present study filled this lacuna by appraising the general impact of smuggling on Ogun state economy.

The black could have concluded that partitioning of Africa was immoral and unprofessional, but it benefited European interest of this age. Though, this act divided African brethren into the newly emerging states. Homogenous groups with peculiar economic, cultural and political identities were disintegrated into polities. This practice according to Asiwaju, could explain why the independent African people  have not acceptd the sacrosanctity of European made boundaries. Asiwaju noted thus:

 

‘…to the attitude in particular African culture areas or ethnic groups which were more immediate affected by the political surgery  being split into two or more colonies and, later independent Africa successor states…the Somali whose essentially continuous culture areas was severed into the separate colonies of British Somaliland, French Somaliland, Italian Somaliland, the Ogadeen province of imperial Ethiopia; the Maasai, cut nearly in half by the Kenya-Tanzania border; the Bakongo across the Gabon-Congo, Congo-Zaira and Zaire-Angola and  boundaries; the Lunda astride the Zaire-Angola and Zaire-Zambia frontiers; the Zande or the Azande cut by boundaries into different parts in the Sudan, Chad, the central Africa republic and Zaire; the Yoruba and the Aja, each divided between Nigeria, Benin (Formerly Dahomey) and Togo; the Gourma truncated into parts…30

 

It is this division that had brought about smuggling as illicit economic transaction among brethren who were dispersed by European creation of sovereign states. The natural situation that people of the same cultural background may hardly be prevented by artificial land barriers soon became the case of the relationship which was noticed among these African peoples. They developed illegitimate routes in the forest which aided the smuggling of goods across the European-made frontiers: reinforcing the inseparability of naturally bounded people. He failed to show the link between European-made boundries and illicit economic transations.

S.J.T Asobele, proved the nexus between cultural homogeneity of Yoruba of Nigeria and the people of Benin as well as land proximity as indisputable factors in the trans-border illegitimate transactions in the area. The people of Benin share so many things in common with the Yoruba of south-western Nigeria. On the cultural similarity that exists between most Benin citizens and the Yoruba of Nigeria, the view of Asobele worth consideration.

The peoples’ Republic of Benin was prior to November 30th 1975, known as the Peoples’ Republic of Dahomey. It lies between longitude O0 and 40 east and latitude 60 and 140 north, Togo to the west and Nigeria to the east. To the south is the Atlantic Ocean. By 1974 population records, Benin was about 3,029,000; 7000 of which were foreigners and 5000 were French…the people of the land share cultural trait with the Yoruba of Nigeria. Some of them are animists: about 65%, while 35% are either Christians or Muslim.31

However, he did not show the link between culture and economic activities of Ogun State. This is an impotant component of this study.

J.D Collins noted that, besides cultural factors, economic consideration serves as a pull and push factors in these neighbours’ (Benin and Nigeria) migration and interactions.  On this issue, Collins observed:

‘The government of the land controls the economy. Palm produce is marketed by ‘Societies Nationale Des Huileries Benin’. Benin uses CFA franc as its legal tender. Small industries such as brewery, soft drink, match making and shrimp processing are springing up. Niger, Burkina Faso and Nigeria enjoy the ports facilities provided by Benin. In a nutshell the economy of Benin is tied to Nigeria.32

However, despite the general belief noted in the above scholarly comments that both nations interact as a result of cultural similarity, there is the contention that most economic interactions are carried out by smugglers who in this illicit dealings, reduce the revenue which should aid and facilitate developmental projects within both nations. This was neglected in this study. This study, therefore, evidenced that the economic activities of smugglers negatively affect the revenue aiding developmental projects in a given society focusing on Ogun State.

According to Ongus Nwolise, security has much to do with the influx of aliens in a nation, in a state of insecurity; threat can be regarded as flux. However, unfriendly neigbhour can undermine the economic security of the state by encouraging or condoning smuggling at the border. Smuggling or illegal entry are important issues of current border management which could undermine the security of the state. It was on this basis that the president of Nigeria, Mohammed Buhari put in place a Decree 20 in 1985 stipulating death for those guilty of smuggling of dangerous drugs and petroleum products.33  There is no doubt that numerous trans-border challenges that were identified throughout the time frame of this study which bedeviled Ogun State economy could be regulated with good security potentials along the buffer-zones of the state and Benin Republic.

Akin Alade, noted among other things that the settlement and state formation in the ara now called Ogun State, pre-datded the 12th Century. It is difficult to discuss the settlement of the people in general. The various sub-groups in the state had different versions of their origin.34 However, the characteristics of border communities was not represented in the account of Alade.


Pages:  209

Category: Project

Format:  Word & PDF        

Chapters: 1-7

Material contains Table of Content, Abstract and References.

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