Acne vulgaris is a chronic inflammatory disease associated with the pilosebaceous follicle of the skin. It is a non – infectious skin disease condition that occurs more commonly in adolescence (young adults) and less commonly in adults. The development of antibiotics resistance by species of bacteria associated with this disease condition has been due to the indiscriminate and overuse of certain antibiotics in its treatment. Theaim of this study is to determine the bacterial content of Acne vulgaris and its antimicrobial susceptibility.Samples were collectedunder aseptic condition from fifty one(51) subjectswith facial pustular and nodulocystic inflammatory lesions among Sixty(60) students of Imo state University, Owerri who participated in the study. The samples were culturedon Blood agar and Mannitol salt agar at 37°C under aerobic and anaerobic conditions for 3 to 7 days. Bacterial growths were identified by colonial morphology, gram stainingand standard biochemical tests while the antibiotic susceptibility pattern of the identified organisms was determined following the enumeration of the bacterial growths. Staphylococcus aureus was found to be the most prevalent organism with a Mean log10 of CFU/ml of 5.58,while Staphylococcus epidermidis and Propionibacterium acnes have a Mean Log10 of CFU/ml of 5.29 and 5.33 respectively. Based on the study, it was found Staphylococcus aureus was sensitive to Ciprofloxacin, Gentamicin, Amoxil, Rifampicin, Chloramphenicol, Ampiclox, and Levofloxacin and was resistant to Norfloxacin, Streptomycin and Erythromycin. Propionibacterium acnes was found to be sensitive to Levofloxacin, Gentamycin, Rifampicin, Ciprofloxacin and Chloramphenicol and resistant to Norfloxacin, Streptomycin, Ampiclox and Erythromycin while Staphylococcus epidermidis was sensitive to Rifampicin, Ciprofloxacin, Amoxil, Chloramphenicol, Ampiclox and Levofloxacin and resistant to Norfloxacin, Streptomycin and Erythromycin.
Acne vulgaris also known as acne is a chronic inflammatory multifactorial pleomorphic skin disease of the pilosebaceous follicles (PSFs) (Hanna et al., 2003). It is characterized by a variety of non-inflamed (open and closed comedones) and inflamed (macules, papules, pustules, and nodules) lesions (Shaheem and Gonzalez, 2013). Acne vulgaris is a long-term skin disease that occurs when hair follicles are clogged with dead skin cells and oil from the skin (Aslam et al., 2015). It is characterized by blackheads or whiteheads, pimples, oily skin, and possible scarring (Bhate and Williams, 2013; Vary, 2015; Tuchayi et al., 2015). It primarily affects areas of the skin with a relatively high number of oil gland, including the face, upper part of the chest, and back (Knutsen-Larson et al., 2012). The resulting appearance can lead to anxiety, reduced self-esteem and, in extreme cases, depression or Thoughts of suicide (Ikaraoha et al., 2005; Kubota et al., 2010; Barnes et al., 2012).
Four major factors are involved in the pathogenesis including increased sebum production, hypercornification of the pilosebaceous duct, an abnormality of the microbial flora (especially colonization of the duct with Propionibacterium acnes), and the production of inflammation (Simpson and Cunliffe, 2004). Microcomedones (earliest subclinical lesions) are thought to be the precursor Lesions that can then develop into non-inflamed and/or inflamed lesions. Although a common disease, the aetiology of acne is not yet fully elucidated. It carries an enormous financial and psychosocial impact. Despite extensive research on acne pathogenesis, the exact sequence of events and possible mechanisms leading to the development of a microcomedone and its transformation into an inflamed lesion has remained unclear (Shaheem and Gonzalez, 2013).
In 2015, acne was estimated to affect 633 million people globally, making it the 8th most common disease worldwide (Hay et al., 2013). Acne commonly occurs in adolescence and affects an estimated 80-90% of teenagers in the western world (Taylor et al., 2011; Dawson and Dellavalle, 2013). Lower rates are reported in some rural societies (Spencer and Ferdowsian, 2009; Goldberg and Berlin, 2011). Children and adults may also be affected before and after puberty (Admani and Barrio, 2013). Although acne becomes less common in adulthood, it persists in nearly half of affected people into their twenties and thirties and a smaller group continue to have difficulties into their forties (Bhate and Williams, 2013).
Acne is not an infectious disease, but three major organisms were isolated from the surface of the skin and the pilosebaceous duct of patients with acne
Including Propionibacterium acne, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Malassezia furfur (Simpson and Cunliffe, 2004). Depending on the severity of disease, the acne patients receive topical or systemic therapy, or a combination (Stein and Lebwohl, 2001; Gollnick and Krautheim, 2003).
Many individuals have made researches on this topic, but only a few have clearly accounted the involvement of bacteria in Acne vulgaris. Again, most people in our contemporary society are fully not aware of the involvement of certain bacteria in Acne vulgaris and at some point have abused drugs in the course of trying to treat this disease condition. Thus, this work is geared towards educating the society about the involvement of some particular bacterial organisms in Acne vulgaris and to add to the already existing knowledge about Acne vulgaris.
1.2 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES
The aim of this study is to determine the bacterial content of Acne vulgaris and its antimicrobial susceptibility.
1. To isolate and identify bacteria associated with Acne vulgaris in the study area.
2. To determine the age group and sex most affected by Acne vulgaris in the study area.
3. To enumerate the bacterial growths present in the samples.
4. To determine the antibiogram of the identified causative agents.
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