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Assessment Of Effective Teaching Of Science Subjects In Secondary Schools In Oshimili South Local Government Area Of Delta State




The study was to examine the assessment of effective teaching of science subjects in secondary schools in Oshimili South Local Government Area of Delta State. To achieve this purpose, three research questions were raised for the study. The study used a descriptive survey design method. The population comprised of all science teachers in the fifteen (15) secondary schools in Oshimili South Local Government Area of Delta State. Simple random sampling technique were used to select a total of ten (10) secondary schools out of the fifteen (15) secondary schools in Oshimili South Local Government Area. In each of these schools , two (2) Biology teachers, two (2) chemistry teachers and Two (2) physics teachers making it a total of six (6) teachers were also randomly selected giving a sum total of sixty (60) science teachers as the sample of the study. The instrument for data collection was a structured twelve (12) item validated questionnaire with a coefficient reliability of 0.80. The method used for analysis of data was mean and standard deviation statistics. Result from the analyzed data revealed that instructional methods used for teaching influences science subjects, academic qualification of science teachers in teaching affect science subjects and non utilization of instructional resources in teaching affect science subjects. Based on the findings it was recommended among others that; government should provide adequate instructional materials and update textbooks to school and science subjects’, teachers should put in more effort in improvising materials that are not available or inadequate in schools for overall effective teaching of science subject in secondary schools.



Background to the Study

The objectives of teaching science to include: knowledge of science academic discipline, to acquire the skills of scientific method, having clear explanation of science literacy and societal goals, for personal needs and for career awareness (Ajaja, 2017).

In Nigeria, the sciences are taught in school subjects as Chemistry, Biology and Physics. The National Policy on Education in the National Curriculum for senior secondary schools volume 3 science stated specific objectives to be achieved by each subject curriculum. The specific objectives for Chemistry include; facilitate a transition to the use of scientific concept and technique acquired in integrated science with chemistry; provide the students with basic knowledge in chemical concept and principles through effective selection of content and sequencing  show chemistry in its interrelationship with other subjects show chemistry and its link with industry, everyday life, benefits and hazards and provide a course which is complete for students not proceeding to higher education while it is at the same time a reasonably adequate foundation for a post-secondary school chemistry course. For biology, the cardinal objectives for Biology include; adequate laboratory and field skill in biology; meaningful and relevant knowledge in biology ability to apply scientific knowledge to everyday life in matters of personal and community health and agriculture and reasonable and functional scientific attitudes (Trowbridge & Bybee 2016).

The physics curriculum has three objectives to achieve: to provide basic literacy in physics for functional living in the society; to acquire basic concepts and principles of physics as a presentation for further studies to acquire essential application of physics and to stimulate and enhance creativity. All these objectives whether general or specific are only achieved by the teacher through giving the right type of instruction to the science students. No matter how well-developed and comprehensive a curriculum is, its success is dependent on the quality of the teachers implementing it (Onwuka & Ughamadu, 2015). The Federal Republic of Nigeria (2014) while stressing the importance of teaching quality in curriculum implementation noted that no nation’s educational system can rise above the quality of her teachers. Science teaching worldwide has standards. These standards must be followed if the national or specific objectives of science education are to be achieved. Trowbridge and Bybee (2016) identified six component of a model for standard science teaching in United State of America to include; teachers of science should plan inquiry-based program of their students; teachers should interact with students to focus  and support their inquiries, recognize individual difference and provide opportunities for all students to learn teachers should engage in ongoing assessment of their teaching and resulting students learning; condition for learning should provide student with time, space and resources needed for successful science learning; teachers should foster habits of mind, attitudes and values of science by being good role models for these attributes and it is important for teachers to become active participants in on-going planning n development of the school science program.

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Although these bench-marks were derived from American science education specifications they are no means limited to United States alone. These same standards are recommended in all science classrooms worldwide. The realizations of these standards vary among Nations because of variation in commitment to achieve and maintain this set standard as most poor nations lack resource to enforce standards in science teaching and learning (Ivowi, 2017).

The practiced competencies of science teachers can be derived from what they actually do in schools, particularly in the science classrooms. Although the National Policy on Education was launched in 1982 and 1985 all states of the federation have joined in the implementation. It is regrettable to note that after this long, most research findings on the implementation of the policy indicate that most of the provisions in the policy are not adhered to. Ivowi (2017) noted that there is wide disparity in the concept of implementation amongst teachers, planners and administrators. The areas in science education practices which are not in conformity with the provisions in the National Policy on Education range from methods of instruction to the exhibition of professional qualities of activities and behavior.

Research result (Aminu, Ivowi, & Ajaja, 2015) have shown that science teachers continue to teach science using the lecturer method despite the recommended guided discovery/inquiry methods and the acceptance of these methods by teachers at organized training and orientation courses. The inability of science teachers to apply guided discovery/inquiry approaches in their teaching is hinged on some teaching problems which include; lack of laboratories equipped with facilities in schools; large class sizes of science students with very few teachers and competency problems arising from the training of science teachers. Research evidences according to Ivowi (2017) now exist to suggest that students’ misconception in science and mathematics may be due to teaching that the teachers do not seem to know the level of misconception in their students. Ajaja (2017) found that biology students taught with guided discovery and invention method retrained biology knowledge longer than those taught with lecture method. This tends to suggest that poor science learning by students is traced to the teachers’ fault in the area of competence.

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Daily observation of science teachers in the classroom indicate that most of the teaching skills science teachers acquired before certification are not put into practice. The deficiencies in science teaching range from; non-giving and making of assignments, non-supervision of instruction, non-organization of practical lessons, non-organization of extra lessons to cover lost grounds, non-assessment of learning outcomes regularly, non-application of improvisation knowledge in instruction to non-taking out of students to field experience. Again all these tend to suggest that teachers are to be blamed for the lack of proper exposure of the science students which result in poor learning outcome among the science students.

This study which is a following-up of an earlier study on the state of the resource materials for teaching and learning science, was in part necessitated by a protracted long period of poor performance of science students (Aghenta 2017). This study is mainly aimed at finding out the extent to which our practices in science classrooms agree with the recommended international standards of science teaching. This study will specifically investigate issues like, time allocation to science subjects, pattern of classroom interaction, methods of instruction, supervision of instruction, coverage of subject content, giving and making of assignments, organization of practical lessons, and organization of extra lessons at no cost and evaluation of learning outcome.

Statement of the Problem

This study was carried out in an attempt to assess effective teaching of science subjects in secondary schools in Oshimili South Local Government Area of Delta State. The teaching of science have standards to be followed by science teachers if effective learning by student is to be achieved. Literature in this area appears very scanty and as a result, our knowledge of what science teachers do in the classrooms is very limited. This therefore calls for more research effort directed towards this very important aspect of science teaching. Literature in this area also indicates that no research efforts were directed at comparing our standards of science teaching with recommended standard worldwide. It is very important to compare our standard in science teaching as presently constituted with the international standards to enable us improve in science teaching. Hence, science teachers has been faced with a lot of challenges in teaching science subjects such as; lack of instructional materials by both the  school authority and the government, lack of practical tools in science laboratories, science teachers incompetence to duty among others influences the teaching of science subject in secondary school. It is therefore against this backdrop that the researcher embarked on assessment of effective teaching of science subjects in Secondary Schools in Oshimili South Local Government Area of Delta State

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Research Questions

To guide this study, the following research questions were raised and answered after thorough investigation;

  1. How does the instructional methods used for teaching influence science subjects?
  2. How does academic qualification of science teachers influence the teaching of science subjects?
  3. How does utilization of instructional resources by science teachers influence the teaching of science subjects?

Purpose of the Study

The purpose of this study is to investigate the assessment of effective teaching of science subjects in Secondary Schools in Oshimili South Local Government Area of Delta State. Specifically, this study seeks to;

  1. Find out the influence of instructional methods used for teaching science subjects.
  2. Examine the influence of academic qualification possessed by science teachers in teaching of science subjects.
  3. Determine the extent science teachers utilize instructional resources in teaching science subjects

Significance of the Study

The findings of this study will serve as literature for further studies, to researchers in the field. The study would also help ‘would be’ science teachers in developing right responses to the challenges of teaching science. Furthermore, this study will help education managers to make effective policies and provide the right infrastructures needed by teachers of science subjects to overcome the challenges facing them are to meet up with international accepted standard where applicable in the field. It will inform biology teachers in secondary schools in Oshimili South Local Government Area of Delta State on the need to develop the right skill and experiences needed to function effectively.

Scope of the Study

This study is delimited to science teachers in secondary schools in Oshimili South Local Government Area of Delta State. In terms of content, this study is delimited to the accessing the effective teaching of science subjects in Nigerian secondary school in Oshimili South Local Government Area of Delta State.

Limitation of the Study

The research study was limited to 10 secondary schools out of 15 secondary schools under Oshimili South Local Government Area of Delta State. Some of the problems encountered by the researchers include limited time, financial constraint and nonchalant attitude of some science subject teachers in filling up the questionnaire.

Definition of Terms

Challenges: to make difficult or hard to do

Motivation: willingness of action especially in behavior. An incentive or reason for doing something

Qualification: meeting the standards, requirements and training for a position.

Science: a particular discipline or branch of learning, especially one dealing with measurable or systematic principles rather than intuition or natural ability

Teacher: a person who teaches, especially one employed in a school.

Teaching: to show someone the way, to guide, conduct. To pass on knowledge

Assessment: Assessment is the process of gathering and discussing information from multiple and diverse sources in order to develop a deep understanding of what students know, understand, and can do with their knowledge as a result of their educational experiences; the process culminates when assessment results are used to improve subsequent learning.

Pages:  51

Category: Project

Format:  Word & PDF               

Chapters: 1-5                                          

Source: Imsuinfo

Material contains Table of Content, Abstract and References.


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