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Educational Foundations

Impact Of Supervision On The Management Of Primary Schools In Northern Kaduna State

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ABSTRACT

This study was designed in order to find out the impact of supervision on the management of primary schools in Northern Kaduna State. The designed objectives were to determine the impact of supervision on the management of instructional work, school records, school environment, school and community relationship, school funding, and staff development. These were properly achieved by descriptive research method. Data were collected with the use of questionnaire. A total of 234 supervisors and teachers responded to the questionnaire, the data were analysed and interpreted through the use of t-test statistics. There was hypothesis testing where p>0.05, means that any t – value that is below 0.05 was rejected. The research discovered that there is need for more provision of facilities for teaching and learning; record keeping needs to be improved. There is need for constant supervision of instructional work. This helps in achieving primary school aims and objectives. It is recommended among others that workshops and conferences be organized to teachers from time to time. School facilities must be provided to school and more percentages be given to State Universal Basic Education Board (SUBEB).

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

             1.1     Background to the Study

Kaduna State is in the northern part of Nigeria; and it shares boarders with

Katsina State by the north, Kano and Plateau by the east and Federal Capital Abuja, Niger, Nasarawa states by the South. Education is the bedrock of any developing country, and Nigeria is not an exception. It is a formal system with a special design which is called the school. The Nigerian educational system is designed based on levels, according to the current educational reform; the levels consist of primary, secondary and tertiary. The basic level is made up of primary and junior secondary level. There are both private and public schools. The primary schools were supported by public funds (i.e by government) with other support from nongovernmental organizations.

Public primary schools are for all the children in various communities. Primary school is a social system as it is a collection of people with contribution towards the achievement of self and the country goals. The children at that level are between six to seven years of age, whom are expected to be taught for at least six years in the schools. Teachers, head teachers and other none teaching staff are provided in such schools.  School supervision was provided by the government to the schools in order to monitor, assess, guide, improve and help stimulate the teachers in order to perform their duties for the achievement of primary educational aims and objectives.

Primary schools are the basic step taken by all the Nigerian children in order to be trained and prepared for the next step of educational level. Therefore, it is very necessary to make primary school organized since it is the educational foundation for all Nigerian children. It is very important to make sure that primary schools are run the way it supposed to be. In order to achieve the aims and objectives of primary schools, school supervision must be constant and proper, so that the teacher will be motivated and work harder. School supervisors do not only monitor teachers but it also give them chance to discuss their problems and provide ways to handle them. In addition, it gives room to improve teachers’ development in terms of promotion issues by identifying those that are due for promotion or those that are supposed to go for studies, workshop and conferences. School supervision is very important for the benefit of both teachers and pupils.

Supervision is a way of stimulating, guiding, refreshing, encouraging teachers with the hope of achieving the educational set goals. Supervision is an age-long device for improving teachers’ skills (Ogunsaju, 1993). Supervision is one among the many responsibilities of an educational administration performed by school heads, teachers and pupils. Since education is very necessary in our country, supervision must be given a high priority. This is because supervision deals with the basic needs of schools and it helps in provision, maintenance, assisting and proper placement of both human and nonhuman materials in schools.

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Areas where supervisors assess in school include, the resources (fund), environment, school and community development, records, staff development, and school instructional material. All these areas are vital which such schools will not remain as schools without them. Therefore, these are areas which if much attention is not given to; the educational goals will never be achieved or cannot be realized. Thus, this research attempts to study if there is any impact on the management of these areas.

             1.2     Statement of the Problem

As a result of inadequate and improper supervision, education lacks its quality, rather schools are graduating half-baked graduates, because there are inadequate facilities, no harmony and good relationship between school and the community, no proper maintenance and availability of school records and also the instructional works were not given maximum attention. A careful observation of current trends in Nigeria, in terms of teaching and learning issues in schools shows that there is need for this research in order to study whether school supervision has impact on the school management. It appears that schools are facing a lot of problems which cause the backwardness in educational sector. There is need for this research so as to find out if lack of proper school supervision is one factor among others which cause the school problems.

In Nigeria, Local Education Authority takes charge of primary education supervision and inspection. The most alarming area is that of the personnel. Trained supervisors and inspectors are the most bottle neck in the school system. These trained personnel are not only inadequate, but in some cases do not exist. The few that exist are never trained on the skills of supervision and inspection. This certainly could be the beginning of no control on the available resources (both human and material). Cases of inspectors attempting to use personal interest are many. This indicates lack of knowledge and technical knowhow of the aim of the school inspection.

Related to the above, is the non-availability of facilities supervision. Facilities such as vehicles, writing materials and allowances are inadequate in most inspection division in Kaduna state. This is also found within the school inspection. The school head masters mostly complain of equipment such as files, papers and other materials that aid their effort in an internal supervision of both human and material resources.  More so, in some schools where there is the availability of some of the materials, the maintenance culture is mostly lacking. Some of these equipment help in review of the last supervision and inspection. There could be document for teachers’ evaluation, pupil’s records, school inventory records to mention but a few. These document help to trace the past supervision for improvement and decision making. Unfortunately, these could hardly be found in most schools today due to inadequate maintenance of facilities. In fact, in some schools, the erring school head keeps records in his personal house, which is never correct in a normal situation.

The most powerful force be deviling education as a system is funding. This cankerworm did not spare school supervision. As mentioned above, an inadequate fund disallows school to conduct several of its activities and programmes. For example inspection suffers due to non staff development, most school heads supervise school activities on the basis of tacit knowledge, in other words, supervision is made on the basis of unconscious experience not through formal training. Also, a problem made by inadequate funds is the inability of schools to procure facilities for record storage. In many schools files are inadequate let alone shelves for documenting records for future uses and decision making. This results to several fake results and claims by nonexistent students.

In relation to supervision of school environment; schools nowadays are in court with their host communities for claim and disclaim of lands. Most school territorial lands are not known, may be due to lose of records and inadequate supervision of the lands. This problem has resulted to several disagreements and conflict which result to having bad school-community relationship. The bad schoolcommunity relationship result to hostility and affect students’ moral control. In fact, in some cases result to theft of the school’s properties. Moreover, inadequate environmental supervision results to schools becoming bushy, thereby making the school prone to fire disaster and snake bite. Most of these problems are associated with the inadequate school managerial skills and funds for managing primary schools in Kaduna State.

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In a study conducted in Lagos State schools, Adesina (1971) finds that out of the 38 schools surveyed, only 7 were within the preceding five years and one the preceding two years; the rest had no record of inspectional visitors. All these problems arise because of the exceeding pupils’ population. And also the new introduced basic system of education does not function properly. In order to attain the educational aims and objectives in the country, school supervision must be given more attention on the aspect of instructional work because it is the heart of the school. Teachers’ activities and class activities will be assessed to find out the teachers level of skills, knowledge and ideas. And also to observe the pupils’ capacity on learning activities and to realize whether the instruments provided by the government were adequate and used by both the pupils and the teachers.

Supervisors will make sure that there is provision of proper school environment with good surroundings, proper cites and area, play ground equipments and garden with good colorful flowers that will beautify the school, proper arrangement of water devices. All these and many more make and encourage teaching and learning in schools.

Another area to be well supervised is the school facilities, the supervisors were expected to investigate the provision, maintenance and functioning of school facilities provided by the school management. School facilities involve; library equipments, tables, chairs, lab equipments, play ground facilities, toilets, and urinary materials. The supervisors help in the provision of school facilities and maintenance.

The last but not the least area is the inspection of school records. This is a very important way of having the historical, references, documentation and evaluation of teachers, head teachers and the pupils of the school. School records involves functioning, availability, and maintenance of the school records. If there is proper and regular supervision in this mentioned areas, in our primary school basically, education in Nigeria will be improved and the aims and objectives will be attained not only in primary school but also in the higher academic level of education and the output or the graduates will be more qualitative in terms of skills and knowledge, because primary school is the foundation of any knowledge if there is concrete foundation.

   1.3     Objectives of the Study

The study was set to achieve the following objectives:

  1. determine the impact of supervision on the management of instructional work in primary school of northern part of Kaduna State; ii. assess the impact of supervision on the management of school funding of primary schools in northern Kaduna State; iii. determine the impact of supervision on the management of staff development in the schools of northern part of Kaduna state; iv. determine the impact of supervision on the management of school and community relationship in primary schools of northern part of Kaduna State;
  2. Determine the impact of supervision on the management of school

environment in primary schools of northern part of Kaduna State; vi. determine the impact of supervision on the management of school facilities in primary schools of northern part of Kaduna State; and vii. determine the impact of supervision on the management of school records in primary schools of northern part of Kaduna State.

             1.4     Research Questions

  1. What is the impact of supervision on the management of instructional materials in primary schools of northern part of Kaduna State?
  2. What is the impact of supervision on the management of school funding in primary schools of northern part of Kaduna State?
  3. What is the impact of supervision on the management of staff development in primary schools of northern part of Kaduna State?
  4. What is the impact of supervision on the management of school & community relationship in primary schools of northern part of Kaduna State?
  5. What is the impact of supervision on the management of school environment in primary schools of northern part of Kaduna State?
  6. What is the impact of supervision on the management of school facilities in primary schools of northern part of Kaduna State? What is the impact of supervision on the management of school records in primary schools of northern part of Kaduna State?
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             1.5     Research Hypotheses

The study formulated the following hypotheses:

  1. There is no significant difference in the opinions of head teachers and supervisors on the impact of supervision on the management of instructional materials in primary schools of northern part of Kaduna State.
  2. There is no significant difference in the opinions of head teachers and supervisors on the impact of supervision on the management of school funding in primary schools of northern part of Kaduna State.
  • There is no significant difference in the opinions of head teachers and supervisors on the impact of supervision on the management of staff development in primary schools of northern part of Kaduna State.
  1. There is no significant difference in the opinions of head teachers and supervisors on the impact of supervision on the management of school and community relationship in primary schools of northern part of Kaduna State.
  2. There is no significant difference in the opinions of head teachers and supervisors on the impact of supervision on the management of school environment in primary schools of northern part of Kaduna State.
  3. There is no significant difference in the opinions of head teachers and supervisors on the impact of supervision on the management of school facilities in primary schools of northern part of Kaduna State.
  4. There is no significant difference in the opinions of head teachers and supervisors on the impact of supervision on the management of school records in primary schools of northern part of Kaduna State.

             1.6     Basic Assumptions

The study was based on the following assumptions:

  1. Supervision has no impact on the management of instructional work in primary schools of northern Kaduna State.
  2. Supervision has no impact on the management of school funding in primary schools of northern Kaduna State.
  3. Supervision has impact on the management of staff development in primary schools of northern Kaduna State.
  4. Supervision has great impact on the management of school and community relationship of primary schools of northern Kaduna State.
  5. Supervision has impact on the management of school environment in primary schools in northern Kaduna State.
  6. Supervision has impact on the management of school facilities of primary schools in northern Kaduna State.
  7. Supervision of school records has impact on the management of primary schools in northern part of Kaduna State.

 

             1.7     Significance of the Study

  1. It is expected to contribute to knowledge as a reference material for scholars in the research field.
  2. It is expected to draw the government attention toward the funding of schools and assessing the resource management.
  3. It is expected to draw the supervisor’s attention to the needs for proper supervision.
  4. It expected that the management of primary schools will be able to realize the level in which school supervision has impact on them.
  5. It is expected that the government will be able to realize the need for constant and proper supervisions in primary schools It is expected that the primary school government will be able to realize the effect of primary schools as the basic and foundation of all the educational levels  vii.  It is expected that supervision will be regards as an engine for moving education either supervisions and teachers backwardness or there lapses.

             1.8      Delimitation of the Study

The study was designed on impact of school supervision on the management of primary schools in north Kaduna State only. The research is limited to the primary schools located at the northern part which involve eight local government S/Gari with

55 primary schools, Lere with 166 primary schools, Kabau with 242 primary schools, Ikara with 122 primary schools Kudan with 81 primary school, Zaria with 114 primary schools, Sabo with 230, and Makarfi with 116 primary schools. The study will focus on the respondent of head teachers and supervisors of the schools.


Pages:  145

Category: Project

Format:  Word & PDF               

Chapters: 1-5                                          

Source: Imsuinfo

Material contains Table of Content, Abstract and References.

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