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Assessment Of Infant Feeding Practices Among Exclusive And Non-Exclusive Breastfeeding Mothers In Ihitte Uboma Local Government Area Of Imo State




This study investigated the Infant Feeding Practices among Exclusive and Non-Exclusive Breastfeeding Mothers In Ihitte Uboma Local Government Area Of Imo State. A total of one hundred and thirty nine (139) respondents made up of eight five (85) non-exclusive and fifty four (54) exclusive breastfeeding mothers. Data were collected using standardized questionnaire, coded and analyzed using statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) version 22. Descriptive statistics showed that majority were married (94.1% and 96.3%) but with similar mean age (29 years) and Body Mass Index (26.1%), many attained SSCE education levels (41.2% and 50.2%) and were largely traders (27.1% ) or civil servants (29.6%) for non-exclusive and exclusive breastfeeding mothers respectively. Periods of feeding baby only breast milk was considered “impossible” (70.6% and 5.6%) while breastfeeding initiation time before 30 minutes after delivery were different (5.9% and 57.4%) respectively for both respondents. Prelacteal given before 30 minutes after delivery was water (76.5% and 0%) or within an hour of delivery is water (84.7% and 0%), glucose water (62.4% and 5.6%), baby milk (56.5% and 0%), pap/custard (34.1% and 0%). Analysis of “ever heard of expressing breast milk” was high (63.5% and 85.2%) but only (11.8% and 11.1%) actually ever expressed their breast milk. Reasons for not expressing included fear of contamination (36.6% and 54.3%) and baby may not take it (22.5% and 13.1%) among others. The study reveals the wide disparity in breastfeeding practices among lactating mothers who attend same health facility and the need for rigorous nutrition education for doubters.

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1.1 Background to the study

Breastfeeding and breast milk are the global standard for infant feeding. Breastfeeding can contribute to lowering obesity risk by improving appetite regulation (Brown, 2010).  Exclusive breast feeding (EBF) is seen as feeding an infant with only breast milk for the first six months of life (WHO, 2016). Exclusive breast feeding (EBF) for six months or more reduces the risk of infections and their associated mortality and morbidity (Hirani and Premji, 2009). In addition, EBF reduces the risk of asthma during the first four years of life (Subedi et al., 2012). Among new mothers, breastfeeding rates increased from 74.6% in the early postpartum timeframe in 2008 to 76.9% in 2009. At 6 and 12 months postpartum, 47.2% and 25.5%, respectively, continued to breastfeed (Subedi et al., 2012).

Breast feeding provides all essential nutrients that are important for the development of the brain and nervous system of an infant (Olang et al., 2009). It is also associated with a decreased risk for many early-life diseases (Olang et al., 2009).

Non-exclusive breastfeeding is a feeding pattern which requires that the infant receive breast milk (including milk expressed or from wet nurse) as the predominant source of nourishment. It allows the infant to receive liquids (water and water-based drinks, fruit, juice, oral rehydration solution), ritual fluids and drops or syrups (vitamins, minerals, medicines) (WHO , 2012).

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During pregnancy and lactation, the female body undergoes a wide array of physical and emotional changes in order to nurture a baby in the womb and to produce milk to breastfeed a baby after birth (Jacqueline et al., 2014). Lactation period follows childbirth and is the timeframe during which milk formation allows for the feeding of the children.  The recommended daily allowance for protein during lactation is an additional 25 g/day. Requirements of many micronutrients increase compared to pregnancy, with the exception of vitamins D and K, calcium, fluoride, magnesium, and phosphorus (Michelle, 2016). As such, it is recommended that women should continue to take a prenatal vitamin daily while they are breastfeeding.  Weight loss during lactation does not usually impact the quantity or quality of breast milk, but maternal deficiencies in magnesium, vitamin B6, folate, calcium, and zinc have been described during lactation (Michelle, 2016).  Both fat (vitamins A, D, K) and water-soluble vitamins (vitamins C, B1, B6, B12, and folate) are secreted into breast milk and their levels are reduced in breast milk when there is a maternal vitamin deficiency (Wojcicki, 2011).

  • Statement of problem

Breastfeeding has been known to be the key element in  infant feeding, survival and growth. Thus, the loud emphatic and continuous interest in it and the more effective exclusive breastfeeding for the first six months of a new born’s life. Unfortunately, many newborn mothers have attempted to breastfeed exclusively, others find it difficult for one reason or the other. Indeed, unless continuous and determined efforts are undertaken to evaluate a practice of new born mothers who are on exclusive breastfeeding and those not breastfeeding exclusively, it may be difficult to understand why groups of pregnant women who attended same ante-natal care and had nutrition and health education about infants would choose to differ in their approach to young child feeding.

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We do not know the infant feeding behaviour of mothers on exclusive and non-exclusive breastfeeding, we do not know the breastfeeding initiation time of mothers, we do not know the pre-lacteal feeding fed to newborn by these mothers, we do not know about the expressed breastfeeding practice of both population.

These are the missing information that compelled my study.

  1. 3 Objective of the study

1.3.1 General objective

The general objective of this study shall be to assess the Infant Feeding Practices among Exclusive And Non-Exclusive Breastfeeding Mothers In Ihitte Uboma Local Government Area Of Imo State.

1.3.2 Specific Objective of the study

The specific objective shall be to:

  1. Assess the infant feeding choice among exclusive and non-exclusive breastfeeding mothers in Ihitte Uboma LGA, Imo State.
  2. Determine the period of breastfeeding initiation among the respondents.
  • Identify the pre-lacteal infant feeding practice in the population.
  1. Evaluate that practice of expressed breastfeeding among the mothers.

1.4    Significant of study

This study shall help the lactating women in modifying the adequate nutritional needs before and during lactation and treatment of malnutrition in children. Researchers shall also benefit from this study as it will serve as guide for further studies.

Pages:  68

Category: Project

Format:  Word & PDF        

Chapters: 1-5                                 

Material contains Table of Content, Abstract and References.

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